Over the past two years this seventh-grade team of teachers has taught writing across the curriculum, used common terminology, and assessed writing using a shared rubric, providing students with a basic writing structure that helps support writing across all subjects. Really helpful article on how to incoprporate Claim, Evidence, reasoning and conclusion into the science classroom.
Will be doing this next year in my classroom, helpful! Kelly Brewster, NY.5 tips to improve your critical thinking - Samantha Agoos
This article is an incredible resource for integrating writing into the science classroom. Lori C.
The rubric incorporated student friendly language, though I am not sure it is as precise as it could be. They finally came to consensus the rubric could probably be useable if definitions were provided at the time the rubric was used. They felt it would be important to use the vocabulary of the topic to help define what in depth would be.
The important teaching moment for my students was to realize how they could have a rubric and make modifications to make the rubric useful as a learning tool. I challenged them to use the organizer in Math as well.
For example, they were able to use a system of equations and their solution as the claim. The evidence would be the work that supported at least three points on their graph. Reasoning was the steps they took to solve the system.
The conclusion was the graph indicating the areas of intersection. Students that before had just gone through the motions and processes of math began to understand there were reasons behind each step and had to explain the Math behind each. Sandy Gady Renton, WA.
Writing across the curriculum, using common terminology, and assessed writing using a shared rubric is what this article talks about.Champaign county warrants
It provides two scenarios, a cross curricular writing rubric, and a student scaffolding chart descriptions for mnemonics, graphic organizers, writing action plans, conferencing checklists, writing processes, and focused practice on individual sections.
The authors described each step in their implementation of the writing processes in their science classrooms. Sue Garcia. Grades Middle. Share Share on Facebook Tweet This.The objective of this lesson is foster an environment where students are able to write an evidence based argument. As a school site we have decided to use the CERC model as means to achieve this objective.
One of the primary reasons we have decided to use CERC Claim, Evidence, Reasoning, Conclusion is that it gives students structure, which is a primary need for our specific student population. In this section of lesson I introduce students to the CERC model by explaining why writing is such an important skill for scientists to develop. It is important for students to understand that being a scientist is more than the stereotypical white lab coat, smoked filled beakers, and random explosions.
In reality much of a scientists time is spent making observations, creating a hypothesis, recording data, data analysis, and communicating their results in scientific journals. As a result to be considered a true scientist one must be able to communicate their findings by making claims, including supporting evidence, and using logical reasoning. As mentioned before, CERC must be constantly modeled and practiced to gradually see improvement in students writing.
This particular text deals with Darwin's Finches and their various beak adaptations to available food sources. One of the reasons I like this exercise is that students are naturally drawn to animals and in addition this is a topic we wii revisit in our Evolution unit. After reading the brief text on Darwin's Finches, students are required to make a claim to answer the following question:. In a well-organized paragraph, and based on the information in the text above, what will most likely happen to the finch population if the large seed plants become extinct?
It is important to take the time to point out each section of graphic organizer starting with question and proceeding to claim, evidence source - if using multiple sources for evidencereasoning, and conclusion see CERC Writing Powerpoint. The final section we complete is transition words explained below. I have provided examples of a completed CERC graphic organizer, and sample student response with corresponding key for Evidence and Reasoning.
All three of these can be shown to students after group practice. Now that students have navigated through the structured model using Darwin's Finches, they have independent practice using the CERC model. I have students work independently since I want them to individually practice this important skill. Use one of the sentence starters below to make a claim. Write down at least 3 pieces of evidence that support your claim.
Data must be accurate.
CERC - Writing an Evidence Based Argument
Provide reasoning that explains why you used the evidence you did to determine the "best". Students sit with all other students who chose the same category. Empty Layer. Home Professional Learning. Professional Learning. Learn more about. Sign Up Log In. Big Idea Students use a claim, supporting evidence, logical reasoning, and a conclusion to write an evidence based argument. Lesson Author. Grade Level.As a science teacher, few things beat a high-quality scientific explanation from a student.
However, the frequency of such explanations often seems far and few between. For me, the first step toward teaching my students how to critically think about how they structured an argument or explanation was to implement the Claim, Evidence, Reasoning CER framework. Though you may have already guessed from the name itself, applying the CER framework to an explanation or argument goes something like this 1. I encourage you to download their CER poster for your classroom.Kaan band ka gharelu ilaj
Though you will experience your own journey upon implementation, I wanted to offer a few of my own thoughts and experiences that answer some of the primary questions I had before starting to interweave this framework into my curriculum. By the time students reach us in their late high school or early college career, they would have already had years of science classes.
Because of this, I recommend introducing the CER framework in a non-scientific context so that students can more easily pick up on the anatomy of a good explanation with the intention that they will eventually be able to transfer these new thinking patterns to a scientific context later. Though there are hundreds of fun ways to do this, here is one way I have introduced CER the past couple years. Watch the video and take a look! I discovered this commercial while reading Trevor Register's blog post about his CER implementation experience.
The little girl in the video believes her dad is an alien and provides multiple pieces of evidence as to why she believes this to be true. Not only is it cute and humorous, but everything she mentions inadvertently provides an awesome opportunity for students to do three things that are fundamentally important when introducing CER.
I will typically ask for students to construct their own CER first and then get into small groups to discuss the merits and any potential holes in each argument. It takes a bit more facilitation by me to get them to realize the point of inaccurate reasoning beyond the simple example of the little girl but students quickly pick up on the message I am trying to get across.
The process is fun and, most importantly, meaningful. It truly does provide an easy way to introduce a more complex way of thinking about how we explain things in science.
My own use of this example can be found in the supporting information at the bottom of this post. The answer to this can be whatever you want it to be. During my 1 st year of implementation, I only used CER in the lab setting.
States of Matter Assessment - CER Writing Prompt - NGSS Aligned
I regret that decision because the nature of our content provides opportunities for students to practice and reflect on their scientific explanations pretty much daily. Adhering only to the lab setting may allow students to think that somehow their explanations of findings in the lab have a fundamentally different structure than the answers I ask them to provide on an assessment.
This year, for the first time, I have started to incorporate CER into my quizzes, tests, labs, and homework. Here are a few that I grabbed from a variety of activities we have done throughout the year. Claim: One source of error that affected our percent yield was our filter not being closed enough when in the funnel. Reasoning: If the water was not clear that meant that some of the precipitate was flowing out in the water and went down the drain and didn't make it into the final mass of the solid Pb OH 2.
The most efficient and accurate method I can suggest is to create a uniform rubric that will be used for every CER explanation. Though the explanations will differ based on content, the general structure to them will always be the same. You can find CER grading rubrics on the internet but it is not difficult to create your own once you understand what each piece of the framework looks like when done properly.
Here is a relatively simple one that I have been using throughout the year. Though we may have disagreements on classroom policies, grading, or even educational philosophy, you can be fairly confident that all of your science colleagues will at least agree on their answers to the following question:. Do you want your students to become better at constructing evidence-based explanations and arguments? If the answer to this is yes and you have a potential framework to offer that can accomplish such a task, aligns with what the NGSS standards advocate for, and already has enough of a foundation in the scientific education community to be taken seriously, then it will leave them with little room to comfortably say no.
If time is the immediate obstacle, then you will find a way to rethink how you spend time currently and make the appropriate modifications. I am proud and thankful to be part of a chemistry department that was willing to accept the integration of CER. Doing so has allowed us to share, compare, and reflect on student work in ways that we rarely would have ever done in the past.
If you decide to do this as a team of teachers, I strongly encourage you to make sure that everyone is on the same page about what CER is, what it looks like, and even how you all plan to grade it. This exercise helped us to constructively argue and become more aligned with each other. Even if you are just the lone wolf using CER, at least you can be confident that you are intentionally trying to make a difference in building a skill that will help students well beyond their academic career even if it is outside of the scientific context.Naming compounds practice
I can honestly say that consistently and effectively implementing this was and still is a process that simply takes time.Include Synonyms Include Dead terms. Peer reviewed Direct link. How many times do teachers assign writing in science class only to be exasperated by their students' lack of writing skills?
They often have difficulty making claims and using evidence; instead of explaining their reasoning, they state, "Just because.
Over the past two years, a seventh-grade team of teachers has taught writing across the curriculum, used common terminology, and assessed writing using a shared rubric, providing their students with the skills to go beyond "just because" and provide evidence and reasoning to back up their claims. Students' writing has improved as they learn a basic writing structure that helps support "all" of their writing, independent of the subject.
Students who feel stronger in science than in English gain confidence in their writing in science class and are able to transfer their newfound skills to ELA class.
Contains 6 figures. National Science Teachers Association.
CERC - Writing an Evidence Based Argument
Tel: ; Fax: ; e-mail: membership nsta.Students will complete a one-page claim, evidence, reasoning CER writeup where they will answer the following writing prompt: "A block of ice is placed in a frying pan and heated until it reaches boiling degrees Celsius. What 3 states of matter changes occur during this experiment? Justify your answer with both a written explanation and molecular diagrams. This assessment requires students to think beyond the "just because" answer and include evidence molecular diagrams and reasoning to back up their claim.
I have included two versions of the writing prompt. One version has a word bank and the other version does not. You can choose to use this assignment in many different ways: a writing assessment, an essay test, extra practice sheet, homework, CER practice, etc. Example Answer Key Included! Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.
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All Categories. Grade Level. Resource Type. Log In Join Us. View Wish List View Cart. Basic PrinciplesChemistryGeneral Science. Grade Levels. Examinations - QuizzesAssessmentHomework. File Type. Also included in:. This download contains nine of my chemistry activities which relate to states of matter. The bundle includes concepts related to solids, liquids, gases, and changes in states of matter. The resources are great as stand-alone activities. View Bundle.
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Add to Wish List. Share this resource. Morpho Science 2, Followers. Keep in Touch! Sign Up.Recognizing the difference between facts and opinions is a skill that is often evaluated on state reading tests. When students define a fact as any statement that can be proven to be true or false, they will concern themselves less with whether the statement is accurate and focus more on whether each statement can be proven. Hence, they will better be able to identify facts and opinions.
I hope these worksheets and resources help you teach your students to reliably distinguish between statements of fact and opinion. Learn more about teaching fact and opinion? Fact and Opinion Lesson and Practice Activity — This is a short lesson teaching students to distinguish between facts and opinions. It also includes a 10 question practice activity at the end of the lesson.
Students determine whether each statement is a fact or opinion, and then they explain their answers. Students read each statement, determine whether it is a fact or opinion, and then explain their answers. Each item is related to athletics, giving this worksheet a fun sports theme. In addition to identifying whether the statement is a fact or opinion, students explain how the statement might be proven if it is factual. This time the questions are about pizza.
Students determine whether each statement is a fact or an opinion, and then they explain their answer. Fact and Opinion Worksheet 5 — Another 25 questions on fact and opinion.
This time students read statement about cars and determine whether each statement is factual or not.
This time students will read dance themed statements and determine whether they are facts or opinions. Students should also explain their answers. Search here. Chess Nonfiction Reading Test Gr. Nonfiction Reading Test Gr. Henry Figurative Language Practice O. We gain information from looking at the sky, from tasting objects, from reading books.
However, even most information is subjective. For example, we know from looking at a thermometer that the air is at a certain degree either Celsius or Fahrenheitbut is the temperature warm, hot, or just comfortable? That depends on how our individual body reacts to temperature.
We can measure the direction and speed of the wind, but is it a mild breeze or a stiff wind? We can taste a particular bottle of wine, but is the wine bitter, sweet, dry, acidic, full-bodied, or oakie? Does a dish have too much salt or not enough? That depends on our taste buds. Facts are not subject to subjectivity—which is why there are so few of them.
A fact is something that can be proven, over and over and over by using different proofs.I begin with a Do Now that most students can relate to from their exposure to television shows, etc. What would happen if a lawyer didn't have evidence to support what they were saying in a given court case? What does the lawyer have to do with the evidence to make her point? I write this Do Now question on the board to get my kids thinking about the importance of evidence in life and in science.
Students generally respond with the following statements paraphrased :. I then reiterate that they are correct and they just having evidence isn't enough--we have to explain reason how the evidence supports what we are trying to explain. In class, we are going to learn about Claim-Evidence-Reasoning as a structure to help us to correctly explain how we know what we know. The image below does a good job of highlighting the various parts of Claim-Evidence-Reasoning C-E-Rand the concrete nature of these guiding questions gives my students a solid structure to present their explanations of scientific phenomena.
In the Egg Mystery lessons students were guided through the process of collecting information and it is now time to make sense of it. This is an exceptionally difficult skill that has induced a lot of anxiety in my students over the years. Thus, I have started using C-E-R to help guide them through the process of making sense of their data.
My classroom has evolved into a much more inquiry-driven, co-creative atmosphere. In that, my role has evolved from a direct instructor to a facilitator of learning. I have found that providing clear structures in class help with student focus and their ability to make connections. In terms of NGSS - multiple science and engineering practices are developed in this activity, including argumentation and forming explanations from evidence.
Modeling C-E-R for my students is an important first step, requiring direct instruction. I begin by asking a fairly basic question, " Does air have mass? I've selected this topic because I want to make C-E-R easy to comprehend and practice.
Air having mass is a relatively easy concept to support with evidence and reasoning. Remember: The ultimate goal is to get my students to explain how the egg got into the flask, but I must first show them how to make sense of their data before they can tackle that rather daunting task. Also, when air was pumped into the basketball it got bigger. We also observed that the air canister started with a mass of g and then, after air was let out of the canister, it had a mass of g.
Interject meaning into the evidence portion--State: "Do you notice that I didn't explain anything in this section. I am simply recording the facts from the research that we did yesterday.
Just like an attorney, scientists must first gather their evidence before they can make sense of what it means or explain how it supports their ideas. We will explain what our evidence means in the next section. Reasoning: The data show that air has mass, one of the characteristics of matter.
If air didn't have mass then the mass of the basketball and air canister would not have changed when air was added or removed. Also, since the basketball got larger when air was pumped into it, we know that air takes up space, as well. If air didn't take up space then the basketball would have remained the same shape. This supports our claim that air has mass and volume. Clarify the importance of using evidence to support our explanations in science--State: "If I just say here is my evidence but don't explain how it supports my claim, then no one in the science community is going to value my claims.Ven 3/1 gunico
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